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    INDUCTOR

            Inductors inhibit the flow of electrical current in alternating current or transient applications. Inductors are used in some A.C. circuits to reduce the voltage reaching the intended load. They may be used to lime the amount of A.C. current flow. Since an inductor’s impedance increases with frequency, they are good for blocking/suppression of high frequency electrical noise. Inductors are frequently used for electrical/electronic filtering purposes. You can find them in tuning and most types of bandwidth filters.

    Saturable inductors can be used in signaling circuits to create time delays. Boost inductors, flyback inductors, and buck inductors are inductors used in some switching power supplies. They are also used in switching power supplies to smooth out ripple voltage and ripple current.

    Types or inductor construction include bobbin wound, toroidal, air core (no core), tube wound, foil wound, litz wire wound, encapsulated (potted), laminated, powdered core, etc…

    Bobbin Wound
    The bobbin is a pre-formed reasonably rigid part. The material is usually, but not always, an insulating material, hence it can provide electrical isolation between the coil and the adjoining core material, provided suitable creepage distance is used. Multi-section bobbins are available to provide increased electrical isolation between coil windings.

    Toroidal Inductors
    Among inductors, toroidals are the high performers. They offer the smallest size (by volume and weight) and lower electromagnetic interference (EMI). Their windings cool better because of the proportionally larger surface area. A 360 degree wound toroidal transformer has a high degree of symmetry, its geometry leads to near complete magnetic field cancellation outside of its coil, hence , it has less EMI when compared against other inductors of equal power rating. Windings that are less than 360 degrees exhibit more EMI. Toroidal inductors with a round core cross-section are better performers than toroidal inductors with a rectangular cross section because the cancellation is more complete for the round cross section. The round cross section also gives a shorter turn length per unit of cross sectional areas lowering winding resistance.

    Common Mode Choke
    A common mode choke may be used to reduce a type of electrical noise known as common mode noise. Electro-magnetic interference (E.M.I.) in the circuit's environment is one source of electrical noise. E.M.I. induces/couples unwanted electrical signals into the circuit. It is desirable to filter out the unwanted noise signals without significantly affecting the desired signal. Environmental sources of E.M.I. often create an independent return path (ground path) for the electrical noise signals. The return path of the desired signal is a different path. Because there are two different return paths, a common mode choke can be used to significantly block/reduce the unwanted noise signal (at the load) without significant reduction in the desired signal.

    Surface Mount Inductors
    This type of inductor refers to a type of construction that permits attachment of surface mount transformers to a printed circuit board.
    Engineers have developed solder pastes, adhesives, and assembly processes that permit attaching inductor terminals to PCBs without using holes. Flat areas known as pads on the inductor terminals are soldered directly to copper circuitry surfaces, hence, the term surface mount inductor. This process eliminates the need to drill holes for the pins, thereby, reducing the cost to manufacture a PCB.

           
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